The need for rest, in the military environment – traditional issues that are rarely touched

In the military, any degradation in performance may have serious implications, potentially result in loss of life or affect mission accomplishment. The maritime environment imposes the additional unique challenges of waterborne motion on the shipboard crew.[1]

 

Preliminary.

For so long forgotten the military research could be a mythos, or say research is only needed for mechanical behavior, technology, or engineering which is the object, humans are not. There is no developed and modern country that does not rely on qualified educated human beings. Military research is very prominent not because of technological interests, but also aspects of operations, management, and personnel resilience — about the long-lasting durability of in-field operations, such as periods of in-service break[2]and effectiveness of physical performance to support combat tasks. Performance demands in the maritime domain, as well as on-field battle, are excellent physical supported … adequate rest, not losing the right to sleep, and prolonged trauma fatigue[3]

 

Discussions about how healthy, quality, and motor performance affect alertness due to shifting work/watch schedules that change habits (against) rhythm Kirkadian [4]. The presence of standard workweek (workweek — work hours per week) affects the duty cycle on board[5]during sailing based on tactical conditions (red, green, yellow, etc.). Traditional for 24 hours, usually 4 – 4 – 4, are arranged in strict turns in the form of a guard section, or a team. To what extent is this schedule fixed is believed to maintain stamina, health, and stress (stress) that is there and free from abnormalities (disorder)? Is the change schedule on each ship the same? The best US surface duty guard rotation is 3/9 (3 hours –on / 9 hours-off) with an effectiveness of 89.9% versus 83.4% for ships using 4 traditional guard sections (4/4?)[6]. The 4/8 rotation (4 hours-on / 8 hours-off) has an effective price of 82.9% compared to 82.5% with a rotation of 3 guard sections[7]. The objective of this watchdog is to maintain the compatibility of the circadian system, the balance of sleep-alert, alertness, rest schedules, and even naps sleep[8]significantly helps the quality of this break. Sleep while the operation is still there and the Commander’s duty to maintain the adverse effects of chronic fatigue, decreased performance, bad decisions, and even climaxes can occur incidents of “one-shot friend”[9]. The article discusses learning about the seriousness of the West in researching the US marine guard regime[10] or other countries. 

 

Overview of marine watch systems (watchkeeping or watchstanding)

                    

Reference: Cpt John Cordle, USN, A Sea Change in Standing Watch, USNI (Naval Proceeding), January 2013, page 34… SWO is a Surface Warfare Officers (community war on water) … for large Sea Transport with the ability to repack fuel, etc. or by boosting nuclear power at sea, making the deployment cycle longer, so this problem of sleep deprivation is very sensitive. 

Sea guard system for sea transportation of several countries or commercial ships or several types of combatant ships is a specific assignment for the crew, to run the operational wheels of the ship, maintain the safety of the ship against the threat or danger of navigation[11]. Depending on the category, this guard duty may occupy a post on the bridge, engine room, electronic room, radio & communication, and other rooms which are considered to have to be on standby 24 hours a day. In a safe condition, responsibility is left to the officer in charge[12], on standby, the CIS operating officer or CIS officer is assigned depending on the status, facilities, and equipment he has. Some countries have different guard formats, generally known by several systems such as 1 typical guard system, 2 typical guard systems. Existing variants such as a traditional system, with 3 sections, five and money keeping (dimes), 6 hours turnover, 1 in 2 guard system, Swedish system, commercial boat guard system, submarine guard system with 3 sections. Whatever the format, whether it’s 3/9, 5/5 some say 3-on / 3-off, or 4-4-4-4 or 4-8-etc, agreed that the schedules were family regimes watch the sea[13]. Expected to be able to guarantee a degree of alertness for 24 hours and still guarantee adequate rest periods and other duties. Many systems adopted the dog watch concept, a system that divides each guard team into two short-term duration each day.

  

The format is made so that each person does not experience the same guard period next. For example, every day get a night watch or always late at night or so that all personnel has the same time (although very short) to meet dinner together or relatively almost simultaneously set a guard system as follows traditional system with 2 guard sections (hint: usually each section is given a designation of the right and left side of the stomach). British submarine (traditional) guard system divides into 3 guard sections, i.e. 2 hours of a guard and 4 hours of rest (8 am to 8 pm) and 3 hours of watch and 6 hours of rest at night (8 pm to 8 am)[14], check the following table with 3 dogged watch sections;

  

This arrangement makes the crew have more hours of sleep. Below this is a 3-5 hour watch format (3 watch sections with a 5-hour watch duration).

  

 

The following table is the 6-hour watch format; make one day divided into 4 charts, with 3 guard sections, resting time rest in 3 days work cycle. This system also provides the advantage of the flexibility to eat time (to 4 times a day), pay attention to the designation for each guard team, the Blue, Gold, and White Teams.

  

Following the US submarine guard regime, the table has been used long before this (not to mention when to change from its source) and is now divided into 3 guard sections. Each guard section experiences a guard for 8 hours, then 16 hours off duty (off).

  

This system has been running until 2015 (for 45 years); 18 hours per day, allocated within 6 hours of guarding followed with 12 hours off duty. Furthermore, 12 hours are free divided into 6 hours to maintain, cleanse, and relax, while the next 6 hours can sleep. According to Nita Lewis, several permanent and non-US regimes have been embraced. Still, for example; 4-on / 8-off, 6-on / 6-off, 6-on / 12-off (for submarine communities), 6-on / 18-off, and 3-0n / 9-0ff (or “3 / 9 “). A 5-on / 10-off (or “5/10”) non-permanent schedule, results in 15 or 30 hours of work, and 5-on / 15-off generates a total of 20 hours of work per day[15]. Working outside a 24-hour (or shorter) rhythm per day is not compatible with the systemKirkadian, an example of a jet-lag experience. Violations of the circadian rhythm will result in poor performance in physiology, sleep health, mood and vigilance performance, and the distribution of work.[16]. The application of this guard section can be explained as follows. Traditionally (for example) 5/10 watch regimes in 3 sections, meaning 5 hours of follow-up are followed by 10 hours of the free watch (off). The watch starts at 02.00, 07.00, 12.00. and 17:00 and 22:00 only last only 4 hours duration. This pattern works only once every 3 days. Pay attention to the daily 2×3 cycle for the 5/10 guard regime through the table below[17].

  

Hint: WS = watch sections

During the 3 daily cycles of the 5/10 regime, you can enjoy sleep for 3 different periods. On the first day of the cycle; personnel enjoys opportunities to sleep shorter than 4 hours followed by 2 periods in standby, between 22 and 20 hours. In contrast to the 3/9 regime with 4 guard sections, see the table below. Section 1 (WS1) from 0300 – 0600, and from 1500-1800), WS 2 (0600-0900) and 1800-2100, WS 3 (0900-1200, 2100-0000), and WS 4 (0000-0300, 1200-1500). Daily schedules are fixed, and personnel gets 2x per 3 hours, shifts (see below) and the same opportunity to sleep at the same time every day.

  

Hint: 3/9 guard team with 4 guard sections.

Activities that are regulated (or violated) the mechanismKirkadian

…. is the resilience[18]of the human body …further said …A new approach to shipboard routine, as seen through two distinct lenses-science and naval operations-could increase readiness with no additional investment of time or money. (Cpt John Cordle, USN)[19].

So serious is the study of sleep, its quality, and quantity to pursue the unit’s level of preparedness — all based on control Kirkadian. Not only that, but even neurodegenerative disease (neurodegenerative dementia — very progressive) like AD (Alzheimer’s Disease) is also a strong reason to do studies on sleep and other factors[20]. Stress (HPA – the main mediator of stress is controlled by the circulatory mechanism in the human body), sleep disturbance, and rhythmKirradiance (disharmonic) all three are strong promotional agents causing AD. Although it is recognized that shifting work (idem with a guard system), is an integral part of the life of modern society still creates traces of unnatural behavior for human life.

 

Whereas many human physiological functions are successfully controlled (regulated) by the “clock” of the circadian cycle well (harmoniously) and become a habit (for example time to sleep, wake up, etc.) healthy. The presence of a shift (forced) to the watch cycle promotes a closely related function to fight nature, that is, the night is forced (?) To stay awake / wakefulness. Though this situation is accustomed (naturally) to occur in the afternoon or morning. Much research has shown that work activities that violate the rhythm that is used to be adjusted by the rhythm of time circadian (Circadian Clocks), making the circadian cycle not harmonious. Circadian rhythm disruption in-depth, according to previous research has stimulated change production melatonin and makes sleep cycle disorders and standby / conscious[21]. It takes a long time to correct this imbalance, it can even occur for months or cause trauma (PTSD?), Insomnia, even can be more than three (3) years with days in the shadow of constant fear[22]. It can be concluded in general, shifts at night and early morning shifts are very sensitive to increase the level of extraordinary sleepiness and the extraordinary desire to sleep for a moment. Compared to those who have not experienced, working with shifts in guard has led to traces of deprivation of sleep rights, sleep fragmentation, episodes of limited sleep (naps sleep), and increased levels of fatigue. It is very interesting to learn about the military given the serious consequences of personnel with sleepiness, loss of sleep, mood, anger, when (when) fully conscious after awakening, sleep naps (sleep naps), sleeplessness, alcohol, and lead to sleep to the optimum level of preparedness not achieved. Even in the class of certain destroyers (destroyers of the same class),

 

Long shifts of time, for example,> 12 hours will encourage extraordinary drowsiness, due to the loss of the right to sleep (extreme) that has been deprived. Short sleep and increased sleepiness will be inherent to any individual who is subjected to a long shift (> 16 hours) and breaks the work threshold per week (> 55 hours)? Shift work is the cause of the emergence of circadian rhythm disruption. This shift has a significant impact on organizational risk and safety. Epidemiological studies have shown that the relative risks that occur in the workplace tend to increase during shifts in the evening shift (increased by 15%) and at night (increased by 30%) compared to a morning or early morning. While the addition of shift time and frequency used increases the incidence rate between 50 to 100%. The impact of shifting guard and work as well as the length of shift and its frequency lead to organizational performance, the explanation is to check the dynamic model below[23]. Note that disruption of sleep and wake schedules (disharmonic) rhythm regulation products (disharmonic) is a very strong influence on organizational performance, plus changes in behavior/habits (smoking, drinking, etc.). The evolution of this behavior is driven by stress conditions, which have a strong chance of becoming a disease (disease). Both of these products (performance and disease) together drive adverse impacts on the organization.

    

In general, the 6/6 guard schedule uses longer working hours, which is 105 hours longer compared to 81 working hours per week according to the set working hours. The model below may be able to help provide an explanation relating to the control of the circuit[24]and how the process, etc. The more popular model is called SAFTE (Sleep, Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness) with its main engine being the circadian function (Circadian Oscillators), check the image below[25]. SAFTE is a combination of sleep patterns, and sleep inertia. Circadian tried to control the influence, performance, and sleep settings. Sleep regulation (homeostatic sleep drive machine products) by regulating sleep balance, waking hours, debt (lack of) hours of sleep, circulatory processes, and figuring or waking during sleep (due to poor sleep quality). Performance is a function of the process of balancing sleep regulation (regulated by the mechanism of homeostasis in the circadian system) renewed, the circadian process, and sleep inertia [26]. Sleep management (homeostatic sleep drive) is the process of regulating sleep hours, hours of walking, hours of sleep deprivation (debt/debit), Kirkadian control process, and fragmentation or awakening during the (supposed) sleep period as a poor quality product from sleep, check the picture below. Whereas performance is a product of the function of balance by the process of regulating sleep, the process of circadian, and sleep inertia[27].

  

Hint: SAFTE model (schematic), measurements in the Kirkadian system, or measurements of sleep quality in 1 month set in PSQI measures [28]

Then the graphic data of the actigraphy monitor on the wrist is continued as the main sleep information to run this model. The heart of SAFTE is the “reservoir” that maintains the balance of “unit” performance effectiveness. When awake, the sleeping “reservoir” becomes empty, and when asleep the contents of the “reservoir” are replaced. Sleep accumulation is based on the quality of sleep and its intensity and intensity of sleep become part of the circadian process[29]. SAFTE is a tool for determining (hypothetical) work and sleep schedules or prospective ways to find a decrease in performance — helps optimize organizational planning and operational management[30]. The study above (aircraft carrier) USS Nimitz, found that the more sleep a person has, the higher the performance. Three (3) hours of sleep is a critical time for a person to reach a satisfactory level of performance (under the worse performance?), Otherwise, sleep more than 9 hours can no longer increase the level of performance (bored?)[31]and the most tired person is the one with the highest position. Thesis Kevin MKerno [32] recommends Adopting a resting schedule change, a Commander must first understand the issue of deprivation of the right to rest and methods to combat sleep deprivation. Next, it is recommended that the Commander slowly in the immediate time to change the rest period of subordinates in the format of the guard system. Especially the 4-on and 4-off guard systems are no longer recommended because it has been found that this system prevents at least 4.5 to 5 hours of resting schedule.[33]. Besides, Nguyen found something that was no less interesting, namely the lack of sleep schedules suffered more by those who worked on the deck, compared to the deck below.[34]

Product research vs. the issue of the regime’s guard against sleep schedules, work, and other effects.

  

Hint: NPS, DoN (Depart of the Navy), Crew Endurance Handbook, (version 1.0, released August 1, 2017), check out HTTP: // my. NPS. edu / web / crewendurance … maybe what is meant from 9 hours – on to 5 hours – on.

 

The readiness system will affect the guarding regime, check the generally accepted (outside of special standby) alert tables below[35]. Although each condition cannot be determined when it appears and when it ends, the table gives a maximum limit per each condition — may be a way to give the crew time to rest. Associated with health conditions (fit) or not, it turns out the addition of the amount (manning) is not significant to efforts to fight fatigue, etc. The survey was carried out on the destroyer USS John C. Stennis showing the efforts to change the sleep-wake cycle (the impact of the guard regime) greatly affected the sleep patterns and the level of crew fatigue[36]. The ship commander must be aware slowly in every operation carried out to rotate personnel from daytime to nighttime or late night (it could be that the total hours of a person’s watch are more at night or late at night than daytime).

  

Work-break schedules are also recommended to be changed from 4-on and 4-off regimes because this schedule does not guarantee a minimum sleep requirement of 4.5 to 5.5 hours per day in continuous sleep conditions [37]. Another way to reduce deprivation of sleep hours, the quality and quantity of sleep hours, namely wearing sunglasses when working or going to the top deck before going to sleep to avoid the pressure (secretion) of melatonin[38]. Practice; schedule shift rotations before sunrise to prevent sun exposure for boat crews working at the top. Sleep in a dark bedroom with minimal light, monitor your intake of caffeine and nicotine in the hours before bedtime. As a last resort pharmacological interventions such as melatonin supplements can be considered[39]. Another with the findings of Ltn Derek R Mason who showed that the working hours of members of the Sea Transportation on the ship were very far from his estimates, especially on cruisers and suggested that it was wrong to suspect that working hours were set to be rescheduled again[40]. The results showed that working hours on cruisers exceeded (survey 85% of participants) by 9.9 hours per week or 1.41 hours per day. The fact is that the Combat System Department (combat system) on cruisers has the impact of being mistaken for working hours (more than 2.5 hours). In general, the results of this survey show that there are similarities over working hours (2 explorers) compared to the standard working hours set by Sea Transportation[41].

 

Not only on-cruisers but even on frigates (smaller than explorers) the same case occurred, with the survey results, 61% reported exceeding 81 hours of the standard set. Officers until Tamtama reportedly worked an average of 20.24 by standard, including hours of sleep at only 8.98 hours per week[42]. The standards set do not reflect the accuracy of the crew’s working break patterns[43]. Strong and relatively similar recommendations were also made by Ltn Leonard. E. Haynes[44]about the inaccuracy of work standards set by Sea Transportation. Sleep efficiency is a set size (in hours of sleep in a bed, not snap sleep), in percentages> 80% is normal, while less than 80% is indicated by insomnia (difficulty sleeping). Observing the issue of sleep quality, the researchers suggest that it can be reduced by reducing in-bed disturbances such as the sound of bells, whistles, broadcasts, limiting inspection by the ship’s Palaksa to the bed, making soundproofing machinery or equipment that can enter the bed. sleeping room, improve air quality, and reduce the lights around it[45]. Kim even recommended that the leadership of the US Sea Transportation is prepared for military operations other than war (MOOTW), which focused on issues of humanitarian countermeasures, both international and domestic crises. This is a new challenge for Angk Laut which requires more enlisted crew members, while the set working hours standard does not accommodate expectations for involvement in MOOTW. Procedures, warning tables, guard, and alert organizations are not designed to deal with this issue. Various efforts and research have been carried out, to produce the main pillars to oversee how to build a sleep schedule to support preparedness during military operations[46]

 

Package A; quick changes from daytime to night shifts to prevent fatigue and improve alertness performance by making 4-5 hours of sleep in the evening or evening and immediately taking care of the night plus pharmacological efforts, for example, administration of temazepam, zolpidem, etc., different dosages and types of drugs for early evening, approaching night. At night watch the levels of caffeine, and modafinil, etc. When sleeping, preferably with dim light, etc. Idem different packages B, C, and D[47]but all of them strive to recover stamina through the appropriate guard regime. Nita Lewis observed the PVT factor (psychomotor vigilance test) that measures how far a person (and its sustainability) is in a state of alert, concerning the length of time disturbed sleep[48]. He designed two (2) independent variables, namely guard schedule and guard section, to compare the 3-on / 3-off and 6-on / 6-off watch schedules into several activities such as sleep, guard, and alert schedules (alertness– -Using PVP). The study of Persi bay waters over the destroyer USS Jason Dunham, as well as examining the effects of two guard regimes namely 3/9 and 6/6 with a population of 122 personnel. Although both of the guard regimes put pressure on sleep disturbance, the results of the 3/9 guard regime were better and received more hours of sleep than the 6/6 guard regime, which was 6.46 ± 0.77 hours compared to 5.89 ± .87 hours[49]. Schedule 3/9 is better in terms of the distribution of sleep episodes per day. Those on duty with the 9/9 schedule received more hours of sleep during the day, while those assigned to the 6/6 guard regime received portions of sleep during the day as compensation for their lack of sleep at night. In the sense that the required workload (demand, workload) crew with a 6/6 regime receive excessive work hours, an average of 15 hours of allocation, which is equivalent to 30% of the standard time allocation provided by Angkasa[50]

 

Specifically for the preparedness score (PVT), the variability between the two regiments varies, ie 6/6 greater variability compared to 3/9 (significant level p <.05)[51]. Actigraphic analysis[52]showed that 24.4% of participants from 3/9 pok fell asleep (nap sleep) compared with 45.5% of pok 6/6 regiments during the watch period. More sleep was reported from the 6/6 regime during the night watch (plus late at night)[53]. The smaller electric diesel submarines like the German 212 or 214 types … are advised not to use alternative 1-in-3 straight eights or 1-in-3 straights fours, preferably with 1-in-2 (8-4- 4-8) or more traditional ones are 1-in-2 (6-6-6-6)[54]. Miller suggests 9 principles of shift shifts, with the understanding, but the quality of the system first[55]. Principles are divided into three (3) groups; circadian stability, chronohygiene principle (shorter turnover times, the minimum frequency of night watch, restoration of body condition after 8 x night watch, maximum weekend hours, etc.) and satisfaction principle (fairness, equity, etc.). The results of all this research on surface ships and submarines are used as a guide for ship commanders, as follows[56].

  

The writing on the top block is reminiscent of the Kirkadian concept. This table explains the relationship between the duration of the guard regime and the number of guard sections and options (2, 3, or 4 guard sections). The result can be seen from the price from the upright side, starting from the worst to the best (top … shorter-better)[57]… and avoid what has been warned in the following table for regimes 3/9 and 5/10 on guard rotation Kiradian:

  

The table above illustrates the effectiveness (work performance) with a guard regime (3/9 or 5/10) and the right vertical line shows the equivalence with blood pressure after drinking alcohol in 12 weeks.

  

The following practices must be avoided (note the text below the picture)[58]:

  

The table below (successively) is a rotation template Kiradian, i.e. 3/9, 6/18, 4/8, and D5 / N3. For each rotating guard regime, the following basic features are explained, a diagram of routine work ideas for each section, and other descriptions. The following is an example of a 3/9 guard regime table[59] this incident:

  

The consequences of this guard regime:

 

  1. Requires 4 guard sections. If all ships are unable to support 4 sections, focus on control — to OOD (officer of the decks), EOOW (electronic officer of the watch), TAO (tactical action officer) to ensure there is a decision-maker at any time.
  2. The team is on guard twice the same guard section every day (e.g. 12-03.00-03). 3. When rotating to a new schedule, each shift to a new rotation by extending the watch by 1 hour per day. Limit rotation or adjust to cruise times so everyone continues to fulfill their regular obligations. Three (3) weeks or more, better.
  3. Protect the sleep period and always remind personnel to sleep at least 7 hours per day. 5. Eat hours try to keep the food warm in all rotations. Also, consider eating late at night to stay warm

… and an example of a 6/18 guard rotation table guard table Kirkadian…

 

  

… and the 4/8 rotation guardKirkadian … in the table below:

 

  

… and D5 / N3 … in the table below:

  

 

…and finally:

 

  

 

Conclusion 

Sleep is a Weapon. A Clear Mind is a Combat Edge. Fatigue Increases Operational Risk (Ref: NPS, Crew Endurance Handbook: A Guide to Applying Circadian-Based Watchbills).

Sleep is also a research priority, linking the performance and long-lasting operation. The object of research for the military is not in the material (technical) area but soft ones (soft) such as personnel & organizations being part of the researchers. Research approaches in the areas of tactics, operations, and strategy and even policy require statistical assistance[60]— plus the help of a DSS (decision support system) that relies on program algorithms with injecting math and statistics. Another potential research with the Kirkadian issue is how far the resilience of Indonesians to dive continuously with electric diesel KS with AIP’s technology. Another potential for research in the field of personnel, such as the prediction of Officer Stacking, (given) each Force (graduation), the rate of leaving tenure (position, duration, etc.), the number of available tenures, etc. Length of the rank of Bintara or Tamtama, optimal age of retirement, number of Pwa, Ba, Ta, recruited, including reserve strength. Modern TNI requires a transformation of modern knowledge and of course, will look back to the strategy and policy (what they want / objective strategy and policy going forward) which will become the next military education curriculum. Research in the field of personnel can be carried out by STTAL, S-1, and S-2 assisted and directed by the staff and Dispsychology staff or Academy cadets as exercises … writing (thesis and thesis programmed from Headquarters).

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  [1] Stephanie Brown, Panagiotis Matsangas, Nita Lewis Shattuck, Comparison of a Circadian-based and a Forward Rotating Watch Schedules on Sleep, Mood, and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance, OR Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting – 2015.

[2] Research on the impact of ground operations has been widely publicized, such as the issue of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), from the Gulf War, the Desert, and so on. 

[3] Nita Lewis Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas, Comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 Watchstanding Schedules for Crewmembers of a US Navy destroyer, (Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA), page 1.

[4] Stephanie Brown, Panagiotis Matsangas, Nita Lewis Shattuck, Comparison of a Circadian-based and a Forward Rotating Watch, Schedules on Sleep, Mood, and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance, … traditional ways of forming a watchdog schedule do not seem to pay attention to (fight) the radiance of rhythm. 

[5] Furthermore, the definition of ships will refer to warships. 

[6] The traditional guard, as in non-Sea ships, is a 4-hour guard, etc. 4 hour return duty (in the same time period). 

[7] Lin Matthew T. Yokeley, USN, Effects of Sleep Deprivation on US Navy Surface Ship Watch Performance Using Alternative Watch Schedules, (Thesis US NPS, MS in Operations Research, Sept 2012), page 2. It may be possible to arrange a ship with 2, 3 or 4 guard sections to serve. 

[8]Lt. Col P J. Murphy, DSTO, Australia, Fatigue Management During Operations: A Commander’s Guide, by Lieutenant Colonel PJ Murphy, DSTO, Australia, page iii … glossary; … nap sleep is less than 3 hours of sleep.

[9] Ibid, page iii.

[10] It just so happens that a number of their research theses were published publicly and could have been the concern of the Indonesian Navy. 

[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watchkeeping

[12] When the ship is docked, the guard team is called a ground guard, while the sail is called a marine guard officer.

[13] T. Kongsvik & K. Størkersen, The possible impact of different watchkeeping regimes at sea on sleep, fatigue, and safety, Conference Paper, June 2011, DOI: 10.1201 / b11433-413.

[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watchkeeping..The Royal Navy traditional submarine three watch system is 2 on 4 off during the day (8 am to 8 pm) and 3 on 6 off during the night (8 pm to 8 am).

[15] Stephanie Brown, Panagiotis Matsangas and Nita Lewis Shattuck, Comparison of a Circadian-based and a Forward Rotating Watch Schedules on Sleep, Mood, and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance, (Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA), Introduction, pages 1165-1167.

[16] Ibid, page 1167.

[17] Ibid, page 1168.

[18]Kelley A. Pesch-Cronin, Nancy E. Marion, Critical Infrastructure Protection, Risk Management, and Resilience: A Policy Perspective, (CRC Press, 2017), page 334 … the term “resilience” means the capability to prepare and adapt to conditions that changes (worse) and survives and recovers immediately from disturbance … or resilience includes the ability to survive and wake up immediately due to a decline, or damage or paralysis due to a deliberate attack, accident, or threat or incident that occurs naturally or … artificial human. A lot of literature that says the meaning of resilience … is the ability to withstand an annoyance or an uncomfortable condition.

[19] Cpt John Cordle, USN, A Sea Change in Standing Watch, 

[20] Trongha Phan & Roneil Malkani, Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Disruption and Stress Intersect in Alzheimer’s Disease, page 2.

[21] Nita Lewis Shattuck, PhD & Panagiotis Matsangas, Ph.D,Work and Rest Patterns and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance of Crewmembers of the USS Jason Dunham: A Comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 Watchstanding Schedules, Dept. OR, US Naval Postgraduate School, Dec 2014, p. 1.

[22] Adam D. Bramoweth & Anne Germain, Deployment-Related Insomnia in Military Personnel and Veterans, Curr Psychiatry Rep (2013) 15: 401, DOI 10.1007 / s11920-013-0401-4, page 401 …. PTSD is a post traumatic stress disorder.

[23] Nita Lewis Shattuck, PhD & Panagiotis Matsangas, Ph.D, Work and Rest Patterns and Psychomotor Vigilance Performance of Crewmembers of the USS Jason Dunham: A Comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 Watchstanding Schedules, Dept. OR, US Naval Postgraduate School, Dec 2014, p. 4.

[24]Zircadian rhythm, is a natural process, an internal process in the human body that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and repeats every 24 hours. It can be called a trained oscillation, regulating circulation starting to wake up, sleep, awake, sleepy, etc. Circadian can also be called a set clock.

[25] Ltn Kevin M Kerno, USN, An Analysis of warfighter sleep, fatigue, and performance on the USS Nimitz (Carrier), (Thesis US NPS, MS in Operations Research, Sept 2014), page 48.

[26] Sleep inertia … Sleep slowness (also called still drunken sleep, not properly awake) refers to periods of decreased performance and decreased alertness after waking from a normal sleep period or a nap.

[27] Ibid, page …. and Paul Naitoh, et-all, Sleep Inertia: Is There a Worst Time to Wake-Up? (Naval Health Research Center, San Diego) … page 2 … sleep inertia is defined …Sleep inertia is a brief period of inferior task performance and / or disorientation occurring immediately after awakening from sleep. Sleep inertia is generally last less than 5 min and has no serious negative impact on restarting routine jobs.

[28] Ibid, page 39, … the PSQI (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index), developed in the late 1980s, is a validated, self-rated questionnaire that evaluates sleep disturbances over one month (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman & Kupfer, 1989a). The questionnaire consists of 19 individual items that are combined to produce seven component scores. The seven component scores are subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction.

[29] Ltn Kevin M Kerno, USN, An Analysis of warfighter sleep, fatigue, and performance on the USS Nimitz (Carrier), (Thesis US NPS, MS in Operations Research, Sept 2014), page 49.

[30] Ibid, page 48.

[31] Ibid, pages 57, 58.

[32] Ibid, page 60, —

[33] Nguyen JL, The Effects of Reversing Sleep-Wake Cycles on Sleep and Fatigue on the Crew of USS John C Stennis, (Thesis NPS, MS in OR, 2002) or check http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4736

[34] Ibid, check the discussion and recommendations chapter.

[35] Ltn Mansfield C Murph, USN, How Increased Manning Affects Crewmembers Fatugue, Mood, and Sleep Patterns: Results of a Study onboard Two US Destroyers,(Thesis NPS, MS in OR, Sept 2019), page 13 … US Navy Wartime Readiness Conditions. Adapted from Chief of Naval Operations (2017).

[36] Nguyen JL, The Effects of Reversing Sleep Wake Cycles on Sleep and Fatigue on the Crew of USS John C Stennis, (Thesis NPS, MS in OR, 2002) or check http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4736, page 65.

[37] Ibid, page 66.

[38] Ibid, page 66,

[39] Ibid, page 66.

[40] Ltn Derek R Mason, USN, A Comparative Analysis Between the Navy Standard Workweek and the work / rest patterns of sailors aboard US Navy Cruisers, (Thesis US NPS, MS in Human System Integration, Sept 2009), page 45.

[41] Ibid, 

[42]The size of sleep can be quantity, quality, while other performance is efficiency. What is the relationship between sleep quality and efficiency.

[43] Ltn Kim, Y.Green, USN, A Comparative Analysis Between the Navy Standard Workweek and the Actual Work Rest Patterns of Sailors Aboard US Navy Fregates, (Thesis US NPS, MS in HIS, Dec 2009), page v.

[44] Ltn Leonard E. Haynes, USN, A Comparison Between the Navy Standard Workweek and the Actual Work and Rest Pattern of US Navy Sailors, (Thesis NPS, MS in OR), Sept 2007), page 33. 

[45] Ibid, pages 47, 48.

[46] M Simons & PJ L Valkview, Sleep and Alertness Management During Military Operations, page 3.              

[47] Ibid, page 33.

[48] Shattuck, N. Lewis & Matsangas, Panagiotis, Work and rest patterns and psychomotor vigilance performance of crewmembers of the USS Jason Dunham: a comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 watchstanding schedules, (US NPS, Technical Report, 31-12-12 2014), page 1.

 

 

[49] Ibid, abstract, … 6.46 ± 0.77, read 6.46 hours on average with a standard deviation of 0.77 hours.

[50] Ibid, abstract.

[51] In statistical terms two (2) samples are difficult to distinguish if they both have large variability, which is good if two or more samples have small variability. 

[52] Measurement of activities (activities) through an actigraph on the wrist will measure whether or not the active event per period of observation is designed.

[53] Shattuck, N. Lewis & Matsangas, Panagiotis, Work and rest patterns and psychomotor vigilance performance of crewmembers of the USS Jason Dunham: a comparison of the 3/9 and 6/6 watchstanding schedules, (US NPS, Technical Report, 31-12-12 2014), page 33.

[54] Michel A. Paul, Steven R. Hursh, James C. Miller, Alternative Submarine Watch Systems: Recommendation for a new CF Submarine watch schedule, (Hint: CF = Canadian Forces), Defense R&D Canada (DRDC), Technical Report, DRDC Toronto TR 2010-001, January 2010, …The mean modeled cognitive effectiveness for all watches within each system was 96%, 96%, 89%, and 66% for the 1-in-3 straight eights, 1-in-3 straight fours, 1-in-2 (8- 4-4-8) and the current CF 1-in-2 (6-6-6-6), respectively. Smaller diesel-powered attack submarines have small crews which makes it impossible for such boats to operate either the 1-in-3 straight eights or the 1-in-3 straight fours. Essentially, small diesel-powered submarines must employ a 1-in-2 watch system with two syndicates (8-4-4-8, better, with E = 89%) or (6-6-6-6 with E = 66%) that work a total of 12 hours each day.

[55] James, C Miller, et-all, al, Effects of Three Watchstanding Schedules on Submariner Psychology, Performance and Mood, (US NavSubMedRschLab, TR – 1226, March 2003), …

[56] US Naval Postgraduate School, Crew Endurance Handbook, (version 1.0, released August 1, 2017),

[57] Ibid, 

[58] Ibid, 

[59] Ibid,

[60] Like it or not, military research will largely rely on quantitative models with statistics as its help.

 

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